The Latvian Civil Law was enabled in 1937 and it is based on the codes of the Roman law and it also has German and French influences. The Civil Law in Latvia is made up of four parts: the first part is the Family Law, the second part represents the Inheritance Law, the third part is the Property Law and the fourth part of the Latvian Civil Code is represented by the Obligations Law.
The first part of the Civil Code of Latvia is represented by the Family Law. The Latvian Family Law is made up of four chapters, each one with its subchapters. The first chapter defines the notions of: betrothal, marriage and the annulment and dissolution of marriage.
This chapter also states what the personal and property rights of spouses are. Chapter two of the Family Law states the rights and obligations among parents and their children, while chapter three deals with other relations between members of the family. The fourth chapter of the Family Law in Latvia sets the legal framework for the guardians of underage children and their duties for the welfare of the children.
The second part of the Civil Law in Latvia is represented by the Inheritance Law which is made up of eight chapters and their subchapters. While the first chapter contains general provisions about inheritances, the second chapter deals with inheritances from spouses or other family members and the order of succession.
The third chapter refers to inheritance by way of will and the forms of the will, which according to the Inheritance Law in Latvia, can be public, private or privileged wills. Other subchapters refer to the content of wills and the heirs of a deceased person.
The fourth chapter refers to contractual inheritance, while chapter five is dedicated to the Law of Succession and Division of Property. The sixth chapter refers to the acceptance of an inheritance, while the last two chapters define the relations between heirs, respectively the termination of an inheritance.
The Inheritance Law continues with the Latvian Property Law that defines in its first chapter what property is and in its second chapter what possession is and its forms. The third chapter of the Property Law in Latvia defines ownership, the forms a property may be acquired and how ownership may end. The fourth chapter refers to the definitions of servitudes. The fifth and sixth chapters refer to the charges and pledge rights over properties. The final chapter of the Property Law refers to the preemption rights over properties.
The Obligations Law is the most complex part of the Latvian Civil Law and it has twenty chapters. The first two chapters define transactions and contracts, while chapter three to six included refer to obligations, the rights and protection of obligations rights.
The seventh chapter refers to the interest obligations, while chapters eight and nine define loss and cession of rights. The tenth chapter refers to the termination of obligation rights. The eleventh chapter mentions defines the term of “gift”, while chapter twelve defines property contracts, such as the loan, lending and bailment contracts and claims that could rise from these types of contracts.
Chapter thirteen defines the purchase, the barter and the maintenance contract, while chapter fourteen defines the rental and lease contracts. The employment relations are mentioned in chapter fifteen of the Latvian Obligations Law and partnership contracts are referred to in chapter sixteen. The last four chapters refer to gambling and claims.
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